For the experiment that is classic subjects are usually people and are separated into either the experimental group or the control group

For the experiment that is classic subjects are usually people and are separated into either the experimental group or the control group

The review showed that people’s perception about healthy/good food are not simply a set of beliefs that can be arbitrated as right or wrong giving the ways scientists discuss healthy eating.

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2145 words (9 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Data Analysis Reference this

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The Experiment

The idea of an experiment is not often used in the area of public administration and management although several types of experimental elements are sometimes used ( such as simulations, gaming or evaluating policy).  Van Thiel (2014) highlights several types of experiments including the classic experiment, simulation/gaming, and field experiment.  The experiment’s reliability is high due to the level of control over standard research however, that also plays into the experiments lack of realism as a controlled experiment is hardly similar to ‘real life’.  For the experiment that is classic subjects are usually people and are separated into either the experimental group or the control group.  The experimental group are subjected to a specific type of stimulus whereas the control group is not.  The classic experiment is time-based and after the experiment ends, the effect of the stimulus can be analyzed.   Normally the classic experiment is a controlled space or area and in order to reduce influences to the experiment, the researcher will limit the number of variables that may influence the experiment.  The minimum set of variables in an experiment is comprised of an independent variable (stimulus) and dependent variable ( the outcome to be measured).  The field experiment is yet another type of experiment. This type of experiment takes place outside of a controlled space or laboratory.  In the realm of Public Administration, the field experiment is normally carried out by a government or public entity rather than a researcher (Van Thiel, 2014).  Experiments can also in the form of simulations and gaming.  In this case, reality is imitated in a setting that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher (Van Thiel, 2014).  Dissimilar to the classic experiment, gaming and simulation do not split the group into a control and experiment and normally more than one variable can be introduced into the experiment.  

should english remain the international language for business essay

The Survey

The survey is arguably one of the best-known and widest used forms of research. It can easily reach thousands of people, collect considerable amount of information and can be tailored to almost any form of research questions, polls or opinions.   a standard survey is normally large-scale, multiple variables and many units of study, known as respondents (Van Thiel, 2014).  To allow large scale data collection the researcher uses standardized forms of measurement, such as answer scales or numerical answer categories (DeVellis, 2012). The most common type of survey is the written questionnaire complete with closed-ended questions that include a set of fixed answers (Van Thiel, 2014).  For example, a respondent may be asked how safe do they feel if a hurricane impacted their city and the answers would include, ‘very safe’, ‘somewhat safe’, ‘nether safe nor unsafe’, ‘somewhat unsafe’ or ‘very unsafe’.  The written questionnaire normally consists of five key steps: The design of the questionnaire, testing in a pilot (or beta test), respondent sample size or type, filling out questionnaire, and entering the respondent data into database to extract and analyze data.  Specific attention must be made to ensure the questionnaire is clear, has no leading statements, uses similar answer categories and the categories cover a complete range as possible. Use of the Likert scale is often employed in surveys as it produces accurate and consistent statistical data.  The layout of a survey or questionnaire is also important.  The questionnaire always begins with an introduction or instruction that gives the point or aim of the study and who is conducting the research. The order of the questions also have to be in a logical and easy to follow process and layout has to be inviting and clear for the respondent (Van Thiel, 2014). 

 

Case Study

The case study is simply a strategy in which one or more cases of the subject of study are observed in a real-life setting.  A case can literally be anything from a law or process to group, city, country or relationship.  Normally the case study takes on a holistic approach meaning qualitative data is gathered on everything that is done or has to do with the case.   Case studies can also be inductive or deductive and will normally produce results that have high validity and reliability.  Case studies are conducted in real life (field experiments) scenarios and generally are designed to solve or formulate a answer or solution to some type of issue or problem.  Contrary to the survey, case studies generally focus on a limited number of situations but the situations are more detailed, producing the goal of more depth than breadth (Timney Bailey, 1992).  Several key elements should be considered when conducting case studies.  The number of cases (single, multiple, contrasting, homogeneous), the number of measurements (time frame, period, spacing) and the research methods such as how many and which ones are all key elements in designing a successful case study. To ensure a successful case study triangulation, or mixed methods, will increase the validity and reliability of the case study.  Combining methods such as observation,  content analysis, and interview are all combined.   Following the proper case study protocol helps to keep the researcher on track and plan day to day tasking and activities.  Case study protocol involves procedures, methods and analysis. 

Quantitative vs Qualitative

Quantitative data collection is normally used to measure problem or issue through the generation of numerical data or data that can be collected and transformed into statistical information to illustrate an observation or issue.   Quantitative data collection methods include surveys, interviews, polls or observations.  In a quantitative study, researchers assign numerical figures to various variables for example, a question might state, “How satisfied are you with your cities emergency response following power outage?” and the answer would be assigned a certain score for every answer (e.g. 1 = Very satisfied, 2 = neither satisfied or unsatisfied, 3 = very unsatisfied).  The answers can then be used in a numerical or statistical representation that can be used in a myriad of ways.   According to Van Thiel (2014), “quantitative data consists of three phases: data collection, data ordering and data analysis”.   The analysis of data can either be theory (deductive) or data (inductive) driven (Robson, 2002).  Analyzing quantitative data can include statistical features such as mean and standard deviation, which is useful to determine how large certain scores are from the statistical mean or average.  Because of the nature of the numerical data in a quantitative study the results may be recorded in tables, figures and charts to be better visually understood. 

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Qualitative studies or research are different from quantitative research in that they mainly exploratory research.  The qualitative study is used to learn and understand certain reasons, motivations or opinions relating to a problem, issue or topic.  It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. The qualitative study helps to provide understanding into the problem/issue or helps to spur ideas or hypothesizes into possible future quantitative research.  Qualitative data is non-numerical for example; research may include observations, interviews, photos, etc. According to Van Thiel (2014), qualitative research might take on different forms such as grounded theory, ethnography and thick description.  Each form of research varies to the number of cases studies, how in-depth the study becomes, and the group or issue being studied. Examples of qualitative studies may include observation and interviews of a specific group of people, observing others while recording your own behavior (ethnographic), or studying environmental policy such as the study done by Knill and Lenschow (1998) in Germany and the UK.  As with quantitative data analysis, qualitative analysis research is recommended to follow certain guidelines to create the most accurate set of data.  Miles & Huberman (1994) define six such guidelines: make a good representation of cases, units and respondents, use of a computer program for data collection, be mindful of researcher interference, pay attention to unexpected or deviant outliers in data, don’t fixate on confirmation of hypothesis, and try to replicate results. 

Reporting Research Results

Every experiment, research or analysis ends with some type of report that is prepared for a specific audience.  Experiments and research are normally done with some type of end goal in mind whether to provide supporting data, contradictory data, unique data or merely providing some type of information via observation or interviews.  Reporting research has to be ethical and generally falls within some type of ‘rules’.  Burnham, Gilland, et al. (2008) defined five rules that apply to all phases of research to include reporting research results.  First, beneficence.  A study should contribute some kind of knowledge or solution and if there are negative outcomes, the researcher should consider all consequences that may negatively impact the respondents or units of study before publishing results.  Second, veracity. Refrain from producing misleading or biased reporting.  Stick to the facts and research and if it does take you in a different direction then follow through with the data.  Third, privacy.  Every respondent or unit of study has the right to not participate, withhold information they deem private.  Fourth, confidentiality.  The researcher must make it absolutely clear to the respondents or units of study exactly how the information and research will be used, why the study is being done, and to what end the information will provide to the sponsor or researcher.  Lastly, informed consent. There must be full disclosure and permission from the respondents and/or units of study to carry out and use/publish the results of the research. Regarding the final report, the format of such report can be nearly any format or delivery.  An article in a science or professional journal, part of a published book, policy advice, political or respondent report, a case study report or a press release.  Recording or writing down the report is also critical as it allows the information to be used, verified, enhanced or in some cases even disproven.  Writing the report may take several shapes depending on the targeted audience, whether scientific, academic, political or whatever. Research can take on as many shapes as the reports themselves and in the end may provide significant or critical data regarding a problem, issue, solution or insight.

 

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1688 words (7 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 International Studies Reference this

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Jose Domingo Blanco, a journalist from Caracas, Venezuela, described the current situation of the country and how the government has allowed the crisis to grow in one of his articles:

And part of the regime’s success is its hunger policy which has been at the same time, its most socialist practice. Hunger and poverty installed in Venezuelan homes, in the misery that the anti-government has distributed equitably between the entire population. It is this collective indigence that is decreed by each salary raise. A beggary that increases with each CLAP box that the government gives away, making of hunger its best control tool.[1]

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Venezuela was once the richest nation amongst its Latin American neighbors and despite having the largest oil reserves in the world, Venezuela has collapsed into complete poverty with the highest inflation rate worldwide reaching 1.000.000% by the end of this year due to economic mismanagement. Venezuela is one of the most dangerous countries in the world, it is governed by an unjust dictatorial and authoritarian communist regime, and its oil production has noticeably dropped, which has led to uncountable salary raises and hyperinflation: “Venezuela’s state oil company PDVSA is contractually obligated to supply 1,495 million barrels per day to those customers in June, but only has 694,000 barrels per day available for export.”[2]

This gloomy and scary scenario has left Venezuelans with insufficient income to survive and buy the basic needs every human being needs in order to have a normal life. Nicolas Maduro (the President of Venezuela) and his allies have kidnapped the nation and their corruption and burglary have led to scarcity, extreme poverty, infant malnutrition, hunger, crime, and suffering. Therefore, Venezuelans flee; they must choose between their country or saving themselves, fear or freedom, danger or safety.

Millions of Venezuelans have left the country and even though the majority has migrated since 2017, Venezuelan political opponents who predicted the crisis have been leaving since 1999, when Chavez was first elected. However, not all immigrants have the fortune to choose their destination and how to leave. Hence, desperate Venezuelan refugees are risking their lives swimming to the closest islands, Curacao and Aruba, or crossing borders on foot for days and weeks to Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and the list continues to grow.

It is not easy to identify a set of solutions for the current Venezuelan migration flow, since the country is drowning in misery. On one hand, 40 States, including the United States, Canada, and Spain, do not recognize last year’s Constituent Assembly’s fraud and some nations have sanctioned Venezuelan officials. In addition, Donald Trump has threatened Nicolas Maduro with military intervention.[3] Also, Maduro’s plan to fix the country’s hyperinflation is to raise the minimum salary wage, which causes more economic chaos. It is unlikely to predict hopeful forthcomings with the current regime in power and international action is improbable to occur.

On the other hand, it seems that more sanctions have been implemented to prevent Venezuelans from flooding neighboring countries. For instance, Panama requires a stamped visa, Brazil increases military security in the border, and Ecuador and Chile ask for passports before allowing passage through the border. Notwithstanding, whereas Lenin Moreno, the Ecuadorian President, says, “everything has a limit,” and declares state of emergency,[4] the new Colombian President, Ivan Duque, in a world of increasingly restricted borders and rejection towards refugees, tells Christiane Amanpour in an interview:

This is a dictatorship that has destructed all the economy, that has annihilated liberty, that has destroyed independent powers, and people are just running. So I decided that we are not going to close the border, we have to give them support.[5]

And such measures have been passed in Colombia; millions of Venezuelans have built a new home in this neighboring country, which was once in the 1800s the same territory ( the Great Colombia), and the Venezuelan diaspora is allowed to live, work and study.

Moreover, the UN Refugee Agency estimated that the financial requirements for the Venezuelan exodus $46.1 million and only $25.5 million dollars have been funded, being the biggest contributor with $13.9 million.[6] These results show that the international community has failed to meet the necessities of these refugees and since there will be more Venezuelans crossing the borders in the coming months, the United States and other States, according to Dan Restrepo, should address the crisis with more meaningful leadership by applying some of the following solutions:

Provide Temporary Protected Status (TPS) to all Venezuelans currently in the United States, Immediately meet the UNHCR’s identified funding needs, Provide recognized travel credentials to Venezuelans forced to flee without documents, Open a formal International Criminal Court (ICC) investigation into regime figures responsible for crimes against humanity in Venezuela, and bring charges against them based on the recent referral by six countries in the Americas.[7]

On a different note, during 2017, countries around the world supported the opposition by covering Venezuela’s protests against the Constituent Assembly and the violence coming from the government’s military forces, especially the United States on CNN and BBC News. However, after the fraud of the election, there was little following and not much is being said about the migration crisis. Additionally, Venezuelan immigrants are working to play a role in the cause; they have either created their own business to donate food, medicines or money to Venezuela or partnered with pharmacies, such as Pharm-Aid. Beside these measures being taken, international organizations, like UNICEF and the United Nations have held meetings to discuss the Venezuelan crisis, including the Venezuelan migration, but no further actions have been taken.

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Victims of poverty, scarcity, violence, hyperinflation, xenophobia, sanctions. Venezuelans have been victims of violence in Brazil and have exposed themselves to freezing temperatures in The Andes as they walk towards their new life, but some have died on their way. The Venezuelan diaspora is suffering and this country that once opened its doors to millions of immigrants now needs international aid. Nevertheless, the United States is in war with Syria and is unable to intervene in Venezuela. Due to the international community’s indifference, Maduro and his allies are benefitting from the people’s misery, the only equality they ever planned to achieve.

All in all, the main cause of the Venezuelan migration crisis is the dictatorial and totalitarian regime that began with Hugo Chavez and it is currently in the hands of Nicolas Maduro. Venezuela is the reflection of socialism and how this type of philosophy implemented in the government can lead to the complete destruction of a beautiful country full of potential due to its oil resources and ideal geographic location. Politicians, sociologists and philosophers have come together to propose solutions to reconstruct and flourish Venezuela, but it all starts with a new government that cannot be overthrown by Venezuelans alone.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Blanco, J. (2017, November 4th). Degradacion Colectivizada. El Nacional. Translation done by me.

[2] Rapier, R. (2018. June 8th). Venezuela’s Oil Exports are Headed Toward Zero. Forbes.

[3] Watson, K. (2018, September 19th). Venezuela’s migration crisis: Is enough being done? BBC News.

[4] Baddour, D. (2018, August 20th). Ecuador shuts its border to Venezuelan refugees amid historic exodus. The Washington Post

[5] Ivan Duque at an interview with Christiane Amanpour on CNN.

[6] U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, “Venezuela Situation Funding Update:” https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/65919

[7] Restrepo, D. (2018, October 16th). Venezuela in Crisis: A Way Forward. Center for American Progress.

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4976 words (20 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 International Studies Reference this

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Background

The Rise of Industrial Detroit

Prior to the 1900s, Detroit was a fairly prominent commercial and transport city, due to its location the Great Lakes region and its access to multiple rail lines. By the turn of the century, the automotive industry boomed and companies such as Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors (commonly referred to as the Big Three) moved into the city. Using Albert Kahn’s new architectural techniques, factories were built to be more efficient and space effective. Such new developments led to a high demand for workers to staff these factories. Low-skill manufacturing jobs in Detroit were extremely attractive at the time. Ford announced its $5 a day wage in 1914, a significantly higher wage than many other low skill jobs of the time, and other companies in Detroit boosted their pay to remain competitive with Ford (Anderson, 2014). People moved to access these newfound opportunities from all over the US and even from outside the country. The population of the city grew and grew, along with the black and ethnic population. World War 1 took off and as America’s manufacturing giant, Detroit factories were refitted to make war materiel. The Great Depression did not hit Detroit as severely as other cities (need some sources on that, honestly just a guess), and again in World War 2, Detroit factories were refitted once again to produce wartime supplies and vehicles. This earned the city the name “Arsenal of the West”. In 1943, due to rising racial tensions betweens the black and white communities, a riot broke out, and was finally ended after three days by federal troops.

Post War Detroit

After the war, returning soldiers and those wealthy enough started moving out of the city. The GI Bill allowed veterans to get low interest, no down payment mortgages for new homes and the highways augmented the current motor culture of the US. New highways were built after the Eisenhower administration passed the Federal Aid Highway Act in 1956. However, those built in Detroit cut through poorer ethnic neighborhoods, dividing those pre-existing communities and displacing those caught in its path with little forewarning. Not only did the well-off residents of the city start to move out, the automakers also relocated to the suburbs of Detroit in search of more space for their factories. Also, distributing the workforce over a larger area and increasing the number factories helped minimize the effect of union strikes. The big three built a combined 25 new factories outside city limits during this time (Sugrue 2004, par. 2). Inner city residents were unable to follow them, due to lack of capital and/or discrimination in housing. Blacks that tried to move into white suburban neighborhoods were met with hostility and the local Veterans Affairs office heavily favored whites for mortgages from the GI bill (Katznelson,). These further increased tensions in the black and white community. ( Need to add more on 60s?) Tensions once again exploded in 1967, when the police raided a small, black owned, illegal bar. The violence escalated and after five days and millions of dollars in damage, the riot had been quelled after federal troops were called in. What had been a stream of people leaving the city has now become a flood. Those wealthy enough moved away in fear for their safety and with them, their tax dollars. This has been a growing problem since people started to leave Detroit. Without a solid tax base, basic social services and infrastructure were severely underfunded. This only exacerbated slow emergency service response times and even to the point where streetlamps couldn’t be turned on (source this). Gang activity and the illegal drug trade was rampant during this period, and these factors continued to cause more people to leave. (I don’t have enough info on Coleman Young). After NAFTA passed in 1994, many auto companies moved their primary manufacturing efforts to near the Mexico-US border, where labor costs there severely undercut wages in Detroit. ( Need to get more info on modern >1994).

Demographic structure

According to the 2016 Census population estimates, Detroit is the 23rd largest city in the US. In 2017, there are 673k people with median age of 34.6 in Detroit, MI (DATA USA, 2019). The population of Detroit is 79.12% black, 14.1% white, and 7.5% Latino or Hispanic (Detroit, 2019). Dividing the population by age range,  the largest age range group is from 20 to 29, which makes up 17% of the population. The second largest age range is from 0 to 9, which constitutes 14%. Only 6% are from age 60 – 79, and 3% above 80. Other age groups are evenly distributed (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).

Poverty background

In Detroit, four in ten people live in poverty.  The poverty thresholds are set quite low in Detroit, MI. A family of four is considered as living in poverty if their annual income is below $24,600 in 2017 (Marge Sorge, 2018). The poverty rate of Detroit is 37.9%, which means that the income of one person out of 2.6 falls under the poverty threshold. At that time, the poverty rate of Michigan is only 15.6%, which is 22.3% lower than the poverty rate of Detroit. As for income inequality, the Gini Index of Detroit was higher than Gini Index of all of Michigan from 2008 to 2016 (DATA USA, 2019).

Age and Gender

At 57.1%, Detroit has the highest child poverty rate in the country and has been increasing since 2000 (Drawing Detroit, 2017).  The poverty rate of children under 18 is above 50%, while the poverty rate of children under 6 is almost 60%, and given that 31.1% of the population is under the age of 18, child poverty is becoming a rising problem in Detroit and the future of the community is bleak. Gender inequality is also problem in Detroit.